Niger has implemented the UN Smuggling Protocol in such a manner that it introduced carrier sanctions on domestic bus travels. This implementation undermines free movement in the ECOWAS zone. The implementation has been sponsored by the EU through legal expertise, training and materials. This constitutes a continuation of European imperial history in Africa.
The New Borders of Empire. European migration policy and domestic passenger transport in Niger, in Paul Minderhoud, Sandra Mantu & Karin Zwaan (eds): Caught in Between Borders: Citizens, migrants and humans. Liber Amicorum in Honour of prof. dr. Elspeth Guild, Wolf Legal Publishers, Tilburg 2019, p. 49-57